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Codes and Frequencies

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STUDENT indicates whether or not the respondent was a student. This variable is coded from a question about whether or not the respondent was a student (or was enrolled in school). Where no information on whether the respondent is a student is available, but the respondent is in the age range where children are required to attend school in the country where the survey was collected, if any study activity is coded in any of the diaries from this respondent, or the diary is completed during school holidays, then this respondent is coded as a student.

When combined with EMPSTAT this variable should distinguish working and non-working students.

Comparability — Index

South Africa
United Kingdom
United States


STUDENT is constructed differently across samples.

Comparability — Finland [top]

In 1979, EMP, STUDENT, and RETIRED are mutually exclusive - a person can be coded only as one of the three. The original variable (ptoim) asked respondents to choose from one of the following: "employed", "unemployed", "student", "chronic disability/illness", "pensioner otherwise", "homemaker" or "other". If people's economic activity status is coded as STUDENT or UNEMP they are coded as not having work hours, so there are no working students or unemployed people in this file.

Comparability — Italy [top]

The survey question on school enrollment refers to the current academic year or the academic year that just finished, so there are cases of diarists coded as students (if the question was asked during summer holiday), although they are not currently students and may be employed or unemployed. In addition, most children aged 3 years and over are coded as student

Comparability — South Africa [top]

In 2000, STUDENT was coded using the original “reason for not looking for work” (NOTLOOKI) variable; a specific variable concerning student status was not available.

Comparability — Spain [top]

In 2009, there is limited information on small hours worked by people with minimal engagement in the labor market. The numbers of students with small hours of work may be underestimated.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

In 1974, this variable is based on an economic activity variable in which 'student' was a response category.

In 1987, respondents are coded as students if their economic activity is student or they are under age 16.

In 1995, respondents are coded as students if they are 'still in full time education.'

Comparability — United States [top]

In 1992-94, can only be created for people who are not working any hours.

In 1994-95, working students working small hours can be identified.

For 1998-2001, STUDENT is created from an economic activity status variable.


  • All persons.


  • Austria: 1992, 2008
  • Bulgaria: 2001
  • Canada: 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Finland: 1979, 2009
  • France: 1985, 2009
  • Hungary: 1999, 2009
  • Israel: 1991
  • Italy: 2002, 2008
  • Netherlands: 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000
  • South Africa: 2000
  • South Korea: 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Spain: 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1983, 1987, 1995, 2000, 2005
  • United States: 1985, 1993, 1995, 1998, 2003-2022