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Codes and Frequencies

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MTRAV reports mode of transport.

For those cases identified as unrecorded travel, the mode of transport is coded as travel by unspecified means.

Users should note that where the original survey records an activity such as walking for pleasure, jogging or hiking and no mode of transport is recorded; MTRAV is coded as walk/on foot. Where the activity is coded as a sport that also involves physically active travel (cycling, riding a horse etc.) and no mode of transport is recorded, MTRAV is coded as cycle or other active transport.

Comparability — Index

South Korea
United States


MTRAV is largely comparable across all samples.

Comparability — Austria [top]

Normally, "other unspecified travel" is coded as in a vehicle. However, in Austria 1992, many of these travel episodes are very short, and more likely walking, and thus could have taken place inside or outside. Consequently, in this survey, in contrast with others, there are MTRAV=5 cases in all INOUT categories and many ELOC categories.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

For Hungary 2009, there are certain cases where ELOC and MTRAV will contradict each other. In these cases where ELOC indicates that the respondent is traveling, but MTRAV indicates that they are not traveling, it is because MTUS codes cannot adequately express the specificity of location present in the source data. Specifically, in these cases, the location is a place of travel (train station, bus stop, street) but the person is not actually travelling.

Comparability — South Korea [top]

In 2004 and 2009, in the original survey data, motorcycle, school bus, company bus, and bicycle were in the same category (loc=7). This was coded as MTRAV=1 (although bicycle was included in this category).

Comparability — United States [top]

In the ATUS (2003 forward), mode of travel is based on both reported activities and locations. Locations take precedence over activities except in three cases. First, walking, biking, and running are assigned non-missing values. Second, travel activities that are not associated with travel locations are assigned a value of 5 (unspecified travel); this is also the case for imputed travel activities (see MAIN).


  • All activities.


  • Austria: 1992, 2008
  • Belgium: 1966
  • Bulgaria: 1965, 2001
  • Canada: 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Czech Republic: 1965
  • Finland: 1979, 2009
  • France: 1966, 1985, 2009
  • Germany: 1965
  • Hungary: 1999, 2009
  • Israel: 1991
  • Italy: 2002, 2008
  • Netherlands: 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000
  • Peru: 1966
  • Serbia: 1965
  • South Africa: 2000
  • South Korea: 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Spain: 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1983, 1987, 2000, 2005
  • United States: 1985, 1993, 1995, 1998, 2003-2022