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This is a 4-digit numeric variable.


END reports the end minute of the activity.

There are two ways to represent time in the diary episode file: time as reported on the 24-hour clock (CLOCKST, and time in terms of the number of minutes which have elapsed since the start of the diary observation period (START). A 24-hour file contains 1440 minutes, except on those days where an adjustment of an extra minute is added to the day to adjust for minor variations in the actual rotation speed of the Earth around the sun (though users should note that very few diaries are collected on such days, partly as few of such days appear in the sampled periods and partly as few participants have been willing to keep a time diary on New Year's Eve when such adjustments are added.) The addition or absence of the additional 60 seconds makes little difference to population behavior patterns, so MTUS makes no attempt to account for these adjustments.

The first episode in all diaries has a start value of 1 (see START), and the last episode in all diaries has an end value of 1440.

END is only available if you select a hierarchical extract. If you request a hierarchical extract and plan to construct time use variables in your statistics package, this variable may be useful to you. Alternatively, you may use "Create time use variable" as part of this system.


END is comparable across all samples.


  • All activities.


  • Austria: 1992, 2008
  • Belgium: 1966
  • Bulgaria: 1965, 2001
  • Canada: 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Czech Republic: 1965
  • Finland: 1979, 2009
  • France: 1966, 1985, 2009
  • Germany: 1965
  • Hungary: 1999, 2009
  • Israel: 1991
  • Italy: 2002, 2008
  • Netherlands: 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000
  • Peru: 1966
  • Serbia: 1965
  • South Africa: 2000, 2010
  • South Korea: 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Spain: 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1983, 1987, 1995, 2000, 2005
  • United States: 1985, 1993, 1995, 1998, 2003-2022