Codes and Frequencies
URBAN indicates whether or not the respondent lives in an urban area.
Comparability — Index
URBAN is comparable across all samples.
Comparability — Canada [top]
In 2005, 2010 and 2015, the indicator for population centers is divided into "larger urban population centers (CMA/CA), rural areas and small population centers (non-CMA/CA) and Prince Edward Island". Prince Edward Island is classified as "rural/semi-rural".
Comparability — France [top]
In 1998, rural regions are identified in the original dataset as (rural / semi-rural) and urban regions include urban areas with less than 20,000 inhabitants.
Comparability — Italy [top]
All municipalities with 10K inhabitants and over are classified as urban and all municipalities with less than 10K inhabitants are coded as rural.
Comparability — South Korea [top]
Note that this was constructed from farm/non-farm household distinction, as no other information was available. Thus, non-farm household can still be located in rural area.
Comparability — Spain [top]
For Spanish samples, we follow recommendations given by the Spanish Statistical Office to construct the variable. "Urban/Suburban" includes city, county town, and municipalities with 50,000 people or more; "Rural/Semi-rural" includes municipalities under 50,000 inhabitants.
Comparability — United States [top]
In 2003, the metropolitan/non-metropolitan status of the area was identified based on 1990 standards. The definition changed for households who completed the CPS interview in May 2004 to use definitions based on standards from 2000. For more on this see the original documentation on changes in the ATUS files.
- All persons.
- Austria: 1992
- Canada: 2005, 2010, 2015
- Finland: 1979, 2009
- France: 1985
- Hungary: 1999, 2009
- Israel: 1991
- Italy: 2002, 2008
- Netherlands: 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005
- South Africa: 2000
- South Korea: 2004, 2009
- Spain: 2002, 2009
- United Kingdom: 1974, 1983, 1987, 2000
- United States: 1965, 1975, 1985, 1993, 1995, 2003-2018