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INCOME
Total household income grouped

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

INCOME contains information about the annual household income (in quartiles).

Users should note that income often has a high percentage of cases with missing values. Also, in many surveys, data on household income was collected and/or coded in income groups rather than interval values. As a result, the identification of the cut-off points for the first quartile (lowest 25%) and fourth quartile (highest 25%) may not be precise.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Austria
Netherlands
South Africa
Spain
United Kingdom
United States

Comparability

INCOME is constructed differently across samples.

Comparability — Austria [top]

For Austria 1992, there is no income variable, but there is a monthly housing costs variable, which MTUS uses in place of income as this is the only alternative. Nonetheless, the data is missing for 68.4% of households.

Comparability — Netherlands [top]

For 2000, we have selected the cut-off point for the first quartile to be 2,400 euros, and the cut-off point for the third quartile to be 4,700 euros. We coded income as '1' (lowest 25%) for cases that fell below the cut-off point (i.e. excluding the cut-off point), and we coded income as '3' (highest 25%) for cases that were equal or fell above the cut-off point (i.e. including the cut-off point).

For 2005, the selected cut-off points for the first quartile are 501 euros-1,000 euros, and the cut-off points for the third quartile are 1,501 euros-2,000 euros. We coded income as '1' (lowest 25%) for cases that fell below the cut-off point (i.e. excluding the cut-off point), and we coded income as '3' (highest 25%) for cases that were equal or fell above the cut-off point (i.e. including the cut-off point).

Comparability — South Africa [top]

Since the original income variable (INCORIG) was categorical, the proportions of household income actually represented by each of the values of INCOME differ slightly from what the value labels specify.

Comparability — Spain [top]

For Spain 2002, data on income was collected and/or coded in income groups rather than interval values. For this reason, we have selected the cut-off point for the first quartile as part of code '2' (500e to 999.99e), and the cut-off point for the third quartile as part of code '5' (1500e to 1999.99e). We coded as 1 (lowest 25%) cases that fell below the cut-off point (i.e. excluding the cut-off point), and we coded as 3 (highest 25%) cases that were equal or fell above the cut-off point (i.e. including the cut-off point). As a result, the category identified as belonging to the lowest 25% does not represent exactly 25% of cases and the category identified as belonging to the highest 25% does not represent exactly 25% of cases.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

In 1974, there are no income variables, though there are two related variables. FOS, family occupation status (A, B, C1, C2, D, E + unemployed + pension, students), and SOCLASS (social grade of household, A, B, C). The combination of these creates a 3 category distribution which will be related to income level of the household. Nonetheless, this is not the same as income. Users should consider carefully whether to use this variable for this study.

Comparability — United States [top]

There is a gradual increase in the number and proportion of people in the borderline category for the top range of income across the years of the ATUS. With the categories available, we can either have roughly 15% in the top income group by 2008 or 30% in the top income group. As we do not have a clear way to break the top group down to closer to 25%, users should note that there are relatively more diarists in the top income bracket by 2008.

Universe

  • All persons.

Availability

  • Austria: 1992
  • Bulgaria: 2001
  • Canada: 2005, 2010
  • Finland: 2009
  • France: 1985, 1998, 2009
  • Hungary: 2009
  • Israel: 1991
  • Netherlands: 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005
  • South Africa: 2000
  • Spain: 2002, 2009
  • United Kingdom: 1974, 1983, 1987, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2014
  • United States: 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, 1998, 2003-2015