Codes and Frequencies
CITIZEN indicates whether the respondent is a citizen or native of the country in which he or she completed the diary.
Comparability — Index
CITIZEN is comparable across all samples.
Comparability — Canada [top]
In 2010, it is only safe to say for people who were born in Canada that they hold the Canadian citizenship. Among immigrants, many can be citizens or permanent residents. We code immigrants who arrived in Canada later than 2006 as non-citizens because it should take a minimum of 3 years before they could apply for citizenship and the review procedures take up to another year or more. The rest were coded as -8; it is likely that the majority of these immigrants are citizens with the rest holding PR cards and a few without.
In 2015, this variable is coded from the original variable as follows:
Canadian citizen by birth only
1 Canadian citizen by birth and other citizenship
1 Canadian citizen by naturalization only
1 Canadian citizen by naturalization and other citizenship
Other citizenship(s) non-Canadian only
The four first responses are coded as 1==Yes (citizen) and the fifth as 0==No (not a citizen).
Comparability — France [top]
The 1985 survey only asked if the household reference person is a French citizen from birth, a naturalized French citizen, or not a citizen, and if the reference person is in a couple, with spouse or partner of the reference person is a French citizen from birth, a naturalized French citizen, or not a citizen. We assume that if the reference person is a citizen from birth that their parents and siblings also are citizens. We assume that if the reference person is a single parent or both parents in a couple that includes the reference person are citizens, that their children also are citizens. We assume that if the single parent reference person or both partners in a couple that includes the reference person are not citizens, that their children, parents and siblings also are not citizens. This variable is coded as -7 for all other cases as it is not possible to make further reasonable assumptions.
Comparability — Hungary [top]
In 2009, non-Hungarian citizens were classified as EU and non-EU citizens. For this variable, these two groups were both coded as non-Hungarian citizens.
Comparability — South Korea [top]
Only Korean citizens were included in the survey.
Comparability — United Kingdom [top]
In UK samples, only main respondents were asked if they were born in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland or another country. People born in the UK are coded as citizens. Children of citizens are also considered citizens. If the main respondent was not born in the UK, children of the main respondent are coded as -7 because we do not know where they were born.
Comparability — United States [top]
The 1975 survey asked where the respondent, the respondent's parents and the respondent's grandparents were born. People who were born in the USA or born to parents born in the USA are coded as citizens. This question was not asked in the first wave of the 1975 data, so missing data is due to respondents who dropped out of the survey before the question was asked.
- All persons.
- Austria: 1992, 2008
- Canada: 2005, 2010, 2015
- France: 1985, 2009
- Hungary: 2009
- Italy: 2008
- Netherlands: 2000
- South Korea: 2009
- Spain: 2002
- United Kingdom: 1987, 2000, 2005
- United States: 2003-2022