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Codes and Frequencies

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CARER indicates whether the respondent provides any level of routine care to an adult who needs regular assistance with daily living or looks after a child whose disability or health condition requires more than the standard care a child of that age might typically require.

Comparability — Index

United Kingdom
United States


CARER is constructed based on whether the respondent reports caregiving on the diary day.

Comparability — Finland [top]

In 1979, the diarist is classified as a CARER if during one of the diary days he or she "helped adult family" or "helped another household".

Comparability — Italy [top]

In 2002, there is no straight-forward question on whether diarist provides any level of routine care to an adult or a child with disability or health problem. However, there are two questions may hint to it: The first question enquires if the diarist’s reason for not working is because of care of a relative, and the second question asks if his/her main reason for not accepting a full-time work is because of old people. We use these two variables to construct the variable of "carer".

Comparability — Spain [top]

In 2002, the variable indicates whether respondents provide care to non-household members. It does not include childcare because we do not know if the children for whom the respondent provides care have needs that are greater than the needs of most children.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

In 1987, respondents reported diaries for up to seven days; if the respondent performed any adult care on any of the days, he/she is considered a caregiver.

Comparability — United States [top]

In 1965, 1992-94, and 1994-95, respondents are considered caregivers if they provided adult care during the diary day.

Beginning in 2011, CARER reports whether the respondent provided any eldercare or assistance yesterday. Eldercare is defined as providing care due to a condition related to aging that is an ongoing ailment or physical or emotional limitation that typically affects older people. Temporary conditions that do not require ongoing care, such as a broken leg, are excluded from the definition of eldercare.


  • All persons.


  • Austria: 1992
  • Canada: 2005
  • Finland: 1979
  • Israel: 1991
  • Italy: 2002, 2008
  • Netherlands: 1995, 2000
  • Spain: 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1983, 1987, 2000
  • United States: 1985, 1993, 1995, 2011-2022