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Codes and Frequencies

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ALONE reports whether the respondent was alone or others/strangers were present during the activity. A value of 1 implies that no one else was reported present during the activity.

The concept "alone" does not necessarily mean that no other person was within sight of the respondent. If given the option of "alone" in a who else is present matrix, some respondents will select "alone" when on public transport at rush hour, while eating out in a restaurant or shopping for essential goods. In such cases, the respondent most likely is around other people, and the "alone" designation means that he or she is not engaging with these other people, though the respondent may well moderate her or his behavior on account of the presence of these other people.

ALONE flag marks cases where the respondent had an option on the survey instrument to indicate that he or she was alone and selected this option.

Users may find other "with whom" variables useful: CHILD, OAD and SPPART.

ALONE is only available if you select a hierarchical extract. If you request a hierarchical extract and plan to construct time use variables in your statistics package, this variable may be useful to you. Alternatively, you may construct a time use variable as part of this system.

Comparability — Index

United Kingdom
United States


ALONE is constructed differently across samples.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The respondent is considered alone when who else is present is coded as ALONE.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

In 1983, the respondent is considered alone when no one is around.

In 2000, the respondent is considered alone when declares to be alone in the who with questions.

Comparability — United States [top]

1965 and 1975, who else is present is coded as alone only for main respondents.

In 2003 forward, the respondent is considered alone when who else present is coded as "alone".


  • All activities.


  • Armenia: 2008
  • Austria: 1992, 2008
  • Belgium: 1966
  • Bulgaria: 1965, 2001
  • Canada: 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Czech Republic: 1965
  • Finland: 2009
  • France: 1966, 1985, 2009
  • Germany: 1965
  • Hungary: 1999, 2009
  • Israel: 1991
  • Italy: 2002, 2008
  • Netherlands: 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000
  • Peru: 1966
  • Serbia: 1965
  • South Korea: 2004, 2009
  • Spain: 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1983, 1987, 1995, 2000, 2005
  • United States: 1965, 1975, 1985, 1993, 1995, 1998, 2003-2022